Front Matter| Volume 2, Pix-xv, September 2020


        Editorial Board, iii
        Contributors, v

        Preface,  xvii

        By Frank H. Miller

        Systemic Therapy in Lung Cancer: Imaging Considerations,  1

        By Richard Thomas, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, and Rachna Madan
         Introduction,  1
         Guidelines for systemic therapy for lung cancer,  2
        Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,  2
        Small Cell Lung Cancer,  3
         Role of imaging in following disease kinetics and monitoring response to therapy,  4
        Tumor Response Criteria,  5
        Atypical Response, Pseudoprogression, and Hyperprogression,  5
        Resistance,  8
        Image-Guided Biopsy,  8
         Role of imaging in monitoring treatment-related toxicity,  9
         Imaging as a component of multidisciplinary oncology,  12
         Future directions,  12
         Summary,  13
         Disclosure,  13

        Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension,  17

        By Seth Kligerman, Lewis Hahn, and Elizabeth Weihe
         Pulmonary hypertension,  17
         Computed tomography pulmonary angiography,  17
         Common findings in patients with pulmonary hypertension,  18
        Dilatation of the Pulmonary Arteries,  18
        Right Heart Findings,  19
         Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension,  20
         Pulmonary hypertension caused by left heart disease,  23
         Pulmonary hypertension caused by lung disease or hypoxia,  26
        Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease,  26
        Interstitial Lung Disease,  27
        Sleep-Disordered Breathing,  27
         Pulmonary hypertension with unclear multifactorial mechanisms,  28
        Sarcoid,  28
        Fibrosing Mediastinitis,  28
        Vasculitis,  29
         Pulmonary arterial hypertension,  30
         Summary,  33
         Disclosure,  33

        Advances in Imaging of Adult Congenital Heart Disease,  37

        By Clinton E. Jokerst and Kristopher W. Cummings
         Introduction,  37
         Significance,  37
         General content,  38
        Advances in Computed Tomography: Iterative Reconstruction,  38
        Advances in Computed Tomography: Metal Artifact Reduction,  38
        Advances in Computed Tomography: Improved X-Ray Tubes,  39
        Advances in Magnetic Resonance: Compressed Sensing,  39
        Advances in Magnetic Resonance: Four-Dimensional Flow,  39
        Advances in Magnetic Resonance: Scanning Pacemaker Patients,  43
        Advances in Postprocessing: Automation,  47
        Advances in Postprocessing: Three-Dimensional Printing,  48
         Discussion,  49
        Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot,  49
        d-Transposition of the Great Arteries: Atrial Switch (Intra-Atrial Baffle),  54
        d-Transposition of the Great Arteries: Arterial Switch Operation,  59
         Summary,  60
         Disclosure,  60

        Artificial Intelligence in Cardiopulmonary Imaging,  65

        By Jessica Chan and William F. Auffermann
         Introduction,  65
         Introduction to artificial intelligence,  65
         Detection,  66
         Characterization,  69
        Characterizing Pulmonary Nodules,  69
        Predicting Survival in Lung Cancer,  69
        Classifying Interstitial Lung Disease,  70
         Segmentation,  70
        Introduction to Segmentation,  70
        Applications in Cardiovascular Imaging,  72
        Applications in Thoracic Imaging,  72
         Case study: pulmonary nodules,  72
         Case study: cardiac computed tomography imaging,  74
        Identification of Key Cardiac Landmarks,  74
        Coronary Calcium Scoring,  74
        Coronary Artery Segmentation, Coronary Stenosis Estimation, and Coronary Plaque Composition,  74
        Computed Tomography Fractional Flow Reserve,  74
         Case study: urgent findings,  76
         Will computers replace clinicians?,  76
         Summary,  77
         Disclosure,  77

        Update in Imaging of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis,  81

        By Katherine A. Kaproth-Joslin, Mary Frances A. Croake, and Stephen B. Hobbs
         Introduction,  81
         Imaging modalities,  82
         Society guidelines,  84
         Imaging findings and diagnostic criteria,  85
        Typical Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Computed Tomographic Pattern Imaging Findings,  86
        Probable Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Computed Tomographic Pattern Imaging Findings,  86
        Indeterminate Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern Imaging Findings,  87
        Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia,  87
        Connective Tissue Disease–Associated Interstitial Lung Disease,  88
        Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis,  88
        Sarcoidosis,  89
        Chronic Aspiration,  90
         Complications of usual interstitial pneumonia,  91
        Acute Exacerbation of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia,  91
        Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema,  92
        Lung Cancer,  92
        Pulmonary Hypertension,  93
        Infection,  94
         Templated reporting,  95
         Multidisciplinary discussion and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,  95
         Quantitative imaging and machine learning in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,  96
         Treatment,  97
         Summary,  98
         Disclosure,  98

        Bariatric Embolization: Is There a Role for Interventional Radiology in the Treatment of Obesity?,  101

        By Jenanan P. Vairavamurthy, Omid Shafaat, and Clifford R. Weiss
         Introduction,  101
         Current obesity therapy,  102
        Lifestyle Modifications,  102
        Bariatric Surgery,  102
        Pharmacotherapy,  104
        Endoscopic Bariatric Techniques,  105
         Bariatric embolization,  107
         Summary,  110
         Disclosure,  110

        Contemporary Techniques and Applications of Radioembolization in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Y90 from Palliative to Curative,  113

        By Ahmed Gabr, Pouya Entezari, Ahsun Riaz, Riad Salem, and Robert J. Lewandowski
         Introduction,  113
         Planning and treatment,  114
        Planning Angiography and Technetium 99m Macroaggregated Albumin Scan,  114
        Estimating Treatment Dose,  114
        Radioembolization,  115
         Current and evolving Y90 techniques,  115
        Radiation Segmentectomy,  115
        Radiation Lobectomy,  115
        Modified Radiation Lobectomy,  116
         Posttreatment follow-up,  116
         Applications and outcomes,  118
         Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer 0/A,  119
         Intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer B,  119
        Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer C,  120
        Terminal Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer D,  121
        Treatment Intent of Y90: Palliative Versus Curative,  121

        Transradial Access in Interventional Radiology,  127

        By Joseph J. Titano, Rahul S. Patel, and Aaron M. Fischman
         Introduction,  127
         Analysis,  127
        Brief History of Radial Artery Access,  127
        Anatomic Considerations,  128
        Transradial Access Across the Spectrum of Interventional Radiology,  129
        Impact of Transradial Access on the Practice of Interventional Radiology,  129
        Learning Curve, Radiation, and Safety Concerns Specific to Transradial Access,  130
         Future avenues,  135
        Length Limitations and the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease,  135
        Distal Radial Access,  135
         Summary,  135
         Disclosure,  136

        Clinical Image-Guided Ablation for Thyroid Malignancy with Proposed Thyroid Segmentation System,  139

        By Alan Alper Sag, Hadiza S. Kazaure, Jennifer M. Perkins, Jennifer H. Choe, Daniel J. Rocke, Tony P. Smith, and Randall P. Scheri
         Introduction,  139
         Clinical image-guided ablation for thyroid malignancy,  139
         Normal anatomy, pearls, pitfalls, variants, and imaging considerations for ablation,  143
        Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve,  143
        Superior Laryngeal Nerve,  145
        Vagus Nerve,  145
        Parathyroid Gland,  145
        Esophagus,  146
        Trachea,  146
        Strap Muscles and Cricothyroid,  146
        Skin,  146
         Proposed thyroid segmentation system,  146
         Summary,  147
         Disclosure,  147

        Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System: Current Challenges and Future Directions,  151

        By Victoria Chernyak and Claude B. Sirlin
         Introduction,  151
         Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic algorithm: background,  152
         Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System population,  152
         Evidence supporting Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System evolution,  152
         Development of standard lexicon for clinical care, research, and education,  155
         Algorithm simplification,  155
         Intermodality agreement,  155
         Inter-reader agreement,  157
         Ancillary features,  157
         Cross-modality integration,  158
         Assessment of washout with gadoxetate,  158
         LR-M category,  158
         Rim versus nonrim arterial-phase hyperenhancement,  159
         Systems unification—is it possible?,  159
         Future technological advances,  159
         Summary,  160
         Disclosure,  160

        The Future of PET-MRI Beyond “PET Plus MRI”: Initial Failure of Utilization Potential and Pathways to Success,  165

        By Babak Saboury, Michael A. Morris, Austin J. Borja, and Abass Alavi
         Introduction,  165
         Present clinical applications of PET-MRI,  167
         Brain,  167
        Alzheimer's Disease and Other Cognitive Disorders,  168
        Cerebrovascular Disease,  168
        Seizure Disorders,  170
        Brain Tumors,  170
        Traumatic Brain Injury,  170
         Cardiac,  171
        PET-MRI-Based Cardiac Perfusion Imaging,  171
        PET-MRI for Viability,  171
        Inflammation,  171
        MRI and Atherosclerosis,  172
        PET and Atherosclerosis,  172
        PET-MRI and Atherosclerosis,  172
         Sarcoidosis,  172
        MRI in Sarcoidosis,  172
        PET in Sarcoidosis,  173
        Hybrid PET-MRI in Sarcoidosis,  173
         Cancer,  174
        Prostate,  174
        Liver,  176
        Musculoskeletal,  180
         Nonmalignant diseases and disorders,  182
         Discussion,  183
        Improved Quantification Is the Name of the Game: Toward the Integrated and Synergistic Approach,  183
        Past to Present: Truth in Data,  183
        Present to Future: Downfall or Resurrection,  185
         Summary,  185
         Disclosure,  185

        Multidetector Computed Tomography of Pediatric Vascular Imaging with Advanced Postprocessing Techniques,  191

        By Alison Hart and Edward Y. Lee
         Introduction,  191
         Imaging techniques,  191
        Pediatric Patient Preparation,  192
        Intravenous Contrast,  192
        Advanced Postprocessing Techniques,  192
         Spectrum of pediatric thoracic vascular disorders,  193
        Vascular Rings and Sling,  193
        Total and Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return,  197
        Interrupted Aortic Arch,  200
        Coarctation of Thoracic Aorta,  200
        Tetralogy of Fallot,  202
         Spectrum of pediatric abdominal vascular disorders,  207
        Renal Artery Stenosis,  207
        Middle Aortic Syndrome,  208
        Aortic Thrombosis,  208
        Hepatic Arterioportal Fistula,  208
         Summary,  209

        Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography of the Abdomen: Ready for Prime Time!,  213

        By Stephanie R. Wilson and Richard G. Barr
        Video content accompanies this article at
         Introduction,  213
        Microbubble Contrast Agents,  214
        Technique for Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  214
         Liver contrast-enhanced ultrasonography,  214
        Interpretation of Liver Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  214
        Liver Metastases,  215
        Hepatocellular Carcinoma,  217
        Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma,  219
        Liver Reporting & Data System,  220
        Variations Between Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Scans,  221
        Liver Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Today,  221
         Kidney contrast-enhanced ultrasonography,  221
        Normal Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Renal Enhancement,  222
        Benign Renal Masses,  222
         Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography beyond the liver and the kidney,  226
        Pancreas Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  226
        Spleen Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  226
        Gastrointestinal Tract Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  226
        Endovascular Aortic Repair,  227
        Pediatric Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography,  229
        Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Interventional Radiology,  230
         Summary,  231

        Utility of Ultrasound for Evaluating Masses in the Pediatric Population,  235

        By Benjamin LeMoine and Jonathan D. Samet
         Introduction,  235
         Patients and methods,  235
         Results,  237
         Discussion,  239
         Overview of commonly encountered pediatric musculoskeletal soft tissue masses,  241
         Cystic lesions,  241
        Popliteal Cyst (Baker Cyst),  241
        Ganglion Cyst,  242
        Ganglion Cyst of Flexor Tendon Sheath,  242
         Vascular lesions,  242
         Lipomatous lesions,  243
         Traumatic lesions,  243
        Nerve Injury,  243
        Morel-Lavallé,  243
        Pseudoaneurysm,  243
         Malignant lesions,  243
         Lesions with characteristic locations (not previously discussed),  243
        Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare,  243
        Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath,  244
        Nerve Sheath Tumors,  244
         Other,  244
        Pilomatricoma,  244
         Summary,  244
         Disclosure,  244

        Particulate vs Nonparticulate Steroids, a Discussion on Safety and Efficacy,  247

        By Wyatt Kupperman and Kush K. Goyal
         Introduction,  247
         Anatomic considerations,  247
         Technical considerations,  250
         Live fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography as safe practice,  250
         Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection,  251
         Studies of efficacy: particulate versus nonparticulate,  251
         Conclusion, 253
         Disclosure, 254

        Compressed Sensing MRI: Technique and Clinical Applications,  257

        By George R. Matcuk Jr., Jordan S. Gross, and Jan Fritz
         Introduction,  257
         Technique,  258
         Clinical applications,  259
        Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI,  259
        Cardiac MRI,  260
        Magnetic Resonance Angiography,  260
        Musculoskeletal MRI,  260
        Metal Artifact Reduction MRI,  263
        Brain and Spine,  265
         Artifacts,  265
         Summary,  267
         Disclosure,  268

        Application of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Bone Lesion Biopsy,  273

        By Sean Dwijendra and Michael Burke
         Introduction,  273
         Normal anatomy and imaging techniques,  273
         Imaging protocols,  275
         Imaging findings/pathology,  276
         Diagnostic criteria,  278
         Differential diagnosis,  281
         Pearls, pitfalls, and variants,  281
        Pearls,  281
        Pitfalls,  282
        Variants,  282
         What the referring physician needs to know,  283
         Disclosure,  283

        Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applications in Musculoskeletal Imaging,  285

        By Sheila Enamandram, Emir Sandhu, Bao H. Do, Joshua J. Reicher, and Christopher F. Beaulieu
         Introduction,  285
         Artificial intelligence: technical terms and concepts,  286
        Artificial Intelligence,  286
        Bayesian Networks,  286
        Machine Learning,  286
        Supervised and Unsupervised Learning,  286
        Neural Networks,  286
        Deep Learning,  286
         Machine learning in musculoskeletal imaging,  287
        Bone Tumors,  287
        Trauma,  291
        Bone Age,  292
        Degenerative Changes,  292
        Data Sharing,  293
         Discussion,  293
        Clinical Impact of Artificial Intelligence,  293
         Summary,  294
         Financial disclosures,  295

        Advances in Intracranial Perfusion Imaging for Thrombectomy Patient Selection,  299

        By Amanda Murphy, Mark W. Parsons, Andrew Bivard, and Richard I. Aviv
         Introduction,  299
         Background,  300
        Perceived Barriers to Multimodal Computed Tomography Scan Use,  300
        Delay Owing to Multimodal Computed Tomography Scan Use,  300
        Multimodal Computed Tomography Radiation Dose,  300
        Contrast-Induced Nephropathy,  300
        Nonreproducibility of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging and Thresholds for Core Estimation,  301
        Rationale for Multimodal Computed Tomography Scan Use with an Emphasis on Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging,  302
        Applications of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Use in Acute Stroke,  302
        Physiologic Patient Selection Rationale,  303
        Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging-Based Patient Selection for Endovascular Treatment Beyond 6 Hours,  303
        Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging- Based Patient Selection for Intravenous Thrombolysis After 4.5 Hours,  304
        Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging-Based Patient Selection for Endovascular Therapy at 6 or More Hours,  305
        Pearls and Pitfalls of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Interpretation,  306
        Post Processing Errors,  311
         Summary,  317
         Disclosure,  317

        Pediatric Ischemic Strokes,  319

        By Boris Chulpayev, Steven Benitez, Sarah Van Dine, Amichai J. Erdfarb, Solomon L. Moshé, Karen Ballaban-Gil, Allan Brook, and Seon-Kyu Lee
         Introduction,  319
         Epidemiology,  320
         Perinatal acute ischemic stroke,  320
         Childhood acute ischemic stroke,  320
         Diagnostic imaging,  320
        Computed Tomography Head, Computed Tomography Angiography Head and Neck,  320
        MRI Brain, Magnetic Resonance Angiography Head and Neck,  320
         Conventional cerebral angiography,  321
         Management,  322
         Summary,  323
         Disclosure,  323

        Advances in Spine Tumor Imaging and Intervention,  325

        By Wende N. Gibbs and Jonathan J. Rasouli
         Introduction,  325
         Conventional and advanced imaging,  325
        MRI,  326
        Computed Tomography Scans,  328
        Nuclear Medicine,  329
         Radiologic assessment and reporting,  332
        Radiation Therapy and Surgery,  333
        Evidence-Based Treatment Algorithms,  334
        Radiologic Assessment,  335
         Percutaneous treatment options,  337
         Summary,  337
         Disclosure,  337

        Magnetoencephalography and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  341

        By Amy L. Proskovec, Bhavya R. Shah, Frank F. Yu, Michael Achilleos, Joseph A. Maldjian, and Elizabeth M. Davenport
         Introduction,  341
         Mild traumatic brain injury,  341
         Magnetoencephalography,  342
         Abnormal slow wave activity in mild traumatic brain injury,  343
        Detection Rates Outperform Other Neuroimaging Modalities,  343
        Sensitivity to Axonal Injury,  345
        Patient Specificity and Relation to Postconcussive Symptoms,  345
        Implications for Treatment and Return to Activity Decisions,  345
        Limitations,  346
         Other areas of investigation,  346
        Aberrant Gamma Activity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  346
        Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  346
        Task-Based Magnetoencephalography in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  346
        Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  347
         Future avenues,  347
        Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  347
        Blast-Induced Versus Blunt-Trauma Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,  347
        Longitudinal Assessment,  347
        Subconcussive Impacts,  347
         Summary,  348
         Disclosure,  349