Front Matter| Volume 1, Pix-xiii, September 2019


        Editorial Board, iii
        Contributors, v

        Preface: Advances in Clinical Radiology, xv

        By Frank H. Miller

        State-of-the-Art Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Imaging, 1

        By Ashish Khandelwal, Achille Mileto, Shuai Leng, and Joel G. Fletcher
         Introduction, 1
        Considerations when designing acquisition and reconstruction protocols, 2
         Organ-specific advances and uses, 2
        Genitourinary system, 2
         Gastrointestinal system, 4
        Liver mass evaluation, 4
        Pancreaticobiliary applications, 7
        Bowel imaging applications, 8
        Trauma, 12
         Standardization of displays, 12
        Virtual noncontrast imaging strengths and weaknesses, 13
        Matched use of virtual noncontrast imaging and iodine maps, 13
         Low iodine imaging, 13
         Workflow and integration into heterogeneous practices, 13
         Photon-counting computed tomography, 14
         Summary, 14

        Digital Mammography, 19

        By Katherine E. Conlon, Lucy Lester, and Sarah M. Friedewald
         Benefits of mammography, 19
         Digital mammography, 19
         Radiation dose with digital mammography, 20
         Technical considerations with digital mammography, 20
         Transition to digital mammography, 21
         Digital breast tomosynthesis, 21
         Digital breast tomosynthesis and national guidelines, 22
         Transition to digital breast tomosynthesis, 23
         Technical considerations with digital breast tomosynthesis, 23
         Synthetic imaging, 23
         Digital breast tomosynthesis-guided biopsy, 24
         Summary, 24

        Cardiac MRI T1, T2, and T2* Mapping in Clinical Practice, 27

        By Gauri Rani Karur and Kate Hanneman
         Introduction, 27
         Significance, 27
        Technical considerations, 27
        Clinical applications, 31
         Present relevance and future avenues, 37
         Summary, 37

        Four-Dimensional Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiothoracic Imaging, 43

        By Bradley D. Allen, Nicholas S. Burris, Pamela J. Lombardi, and Christopher J. Francois
         Introduction, 43
         Significance, 44
        Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, 44
        Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging, 44
        Clinical applications, 46
         Future directions, 50
        Aortic dissection, 50
        Diastolic dysfunction, 51
         Summary, 51

        Quantitative MRI Biomarkers of Diffuse Liver Disease, 55

        By Michael C. Olson, Scott B. Reeder, and Sudhakar K. Venkatesh
         Introduction, 55
         Evaluation of hepatic fat content, 56
         MRI evaluation of hepatic fat content, 56
         Quantitative chemical shift–encoded MRI, 57
         Proton density fat fraction and R2* maps, 58
         Applications, 59
         Limitations, 59
         Evaluation of hepatic fibrosis, 60
         Magnetic resonance evaluation of fibrosis: magnetic resonance elastography, 61
         Elastograms, 62
         Applications, 62
         Advances in liver magnetic resonance elastography, 63
         Limitations, 64
         Summary, 66

        Radiogenomics of Oncology: Current Trends and Future Directions, 71

        By Jason Chiang and Neema Jamshidi
         Brain, 72
         Lung, 73
         Liver, 74
         Kidney, 75
         Prostate, 75
         Breast, 76
         Abscopal effects, 77
         Current challenges and limitations, 77
         Future directions, 78

        Deep Learning in Musculoskeletal Imaging, 83

        By Fang Liu and Richard Kijowski
         Introduction, 83
         Overview of deep learning, 84
         Tissue segmentation, 85
         Image reconstruction, 87
         Disease detection, 88
         Summary, 91

        Lung Cancer Screening, 95

        By Brett W. Carter
         Introduction, 95
         Communication of low-dose computed tomography results, 96
        Lung CT screening reporting and data system, 96
         Underserved populations, 100
         Incidental findings, 101
        Background, 101
        Classification, 102
        Reporting and management, 103
         Radiomics, 103
         Biomarkers for lung cancer screening, 104
         Summary, 104

        Quantitative Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Lung Nodules, 109

        By Jeffrey B. Alpert
         Introduction, 109
         Nodule diameter, volume, and mass, 110
         Understanding radiomics, 111
        Considering histogram features, 111
         Quantitative computed tomography and lung nodules: clinical applications, 113
         Current challenges, 116
         Summary, 117

        Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Preprocedure and Postprocedure Imaging, 119

        By Htin Aung, Eric E. Williamson, and Satinder P. Singh
        Video content accompanies this article at
         Introduction, 119
         Backround, 120
         Development of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, 120
         Pretranscatheter aortic valve replacement imaging, 122
         Echocardiography, 122
         Multidetector computed tomography, 123
         Image acquisition, 123
         Measurements, 123
         Access site measurements, 126
        Transfemoral, 126
        Transapical, 126
        Other access sites, 126
         Alternative imaging modalities, 129
         Special cases, 129
         Complications, 130
        Valve thrombosis, 132
         Summary, 133

        Fetal Neuroimaging, 135

        By Thierry A.G.M. Huisman
         Introduction, 135
         Significance, 135
         Anatomic and advanced fetal magnetic resonance imaging sequences, 136
         Feto-maternal unit, 136
         Significance of serial or follow-up fetal MRI examinations, 139
         Isolated finding or part of a syndrome, quo vadis?, 140
         Concept of fetal malformation, disruption, and destruction and timing of injury, 141
         Multilevel fetal abnormality benefits from a large field of view, 144
         Fetal/maternal incubator, 144
         Magnetic resonance pelvimetry and fetal MRI, 145
         Chiari 2 and open spinal dysraphia, fetal interventions, 146

        Neuroendocrine Imaging: Pathology, Clinical Algorithms, Imaging Appropriateness, and Management of Incidental Findings, 151

        By Judah Burns, Kevin Hsu, Keivan Shifteh, and Amichai J. Erdfarb
         Introduction, 151
         Normal anatomy and imaging technique, 151
         Clinical syndromes, 154
         Imaging appropriateness, 155
         Imaging findings, 156
        Ectopic or absent posterior pituitary, 156
        Pituitary microadenoma, 157
        Pituitary macroadenoma, 157
        Pituitary apoplexy and abscess, 160
        Rathke cleft cyst, 160
        Craniopharyngioma, 161
        Lymphocytic hypophysitis, 161
        Tuber cinereum hamartoma, 163
        Other cystic lesions of the sella and suprasellar cistern, 163
        Other suprasellar lesions of nonpituitary origin, 165
         Incidental findings, 166
         Summary, 168

        Imaging of Sports Injuries of the Lower Extremity, 171

        By Swati Deshmukh
         Introduction, 171
         Imaging technique, 171
         Osseous sports injuries, 172
         Articular sports injuries, 173
         Ligamentous sports injuries, 176
         Muscular sports injuries, 177
         Tendinous sports injuries, 179
         Fascial/aponeurotic sports injuries, 181
         Summary, 182

        Utility and Limitations of Multimodality Imaging for the Evaluation of Neuromas-in-Continuity in the Preoperative and Intraoperative Settings, 183

        By Samir Abboud, Kulia Kakarala, Ankur Garg, Thomas Grant, Michel Kliot, and Imran M. Omar
         Introduction, 183
         Pathophysiology, 184
         Treatment, 184
         Imaging strategy, 184
         Injury-grade specific imaging findings and pitfalls, 186
        Example: identifying severe injury, 186
        Example: identifying lower-grade injury and visualizing nerve healing/Regeneration, 186
        Example: identifying subtle injury, confirming preoperative diagnosis with ultrasound-guided percutaneous intervention, 189
         Current imaging limitations, 190
         Summary, 190

        High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease, 193

        By Ramez N. Abdalla, Donald R. Cantrell, Alireza Vali, Michael C. Hurley, Ali Shaibani, Timothy J. Carroll, and Sameer A. Ansari
         Introduction, 193
         Intracranial atherosclerotic disease epidemiology and risk factors, 194
         Intracranial atherosclerotic disease stroke recurrence, 194
         Intracranial atherosclerotic disease management, 195
         Luminal angiography limitations, 195
         Intracranial atherosclerotic disease and vulnerable plaque pathophysiology, 198
         Intracranial atherosclerotic disease stroke mechanisms, 199
         Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging protocols, 200
        Blood and cerebrospinal fluid suppression, 200
        Spatial resolution, 200
        Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional protocols, 201
        Field strength, 201
        Image weighting, 201
        Contrast injection, 201
        Pulse gating, 201
         Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging: normal intracranial vasculature, 202
         Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging: intracranial atherosclerotic disease, 203
         Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging in differentiating intracranial stenoses, occlusions, and vasculopathies, 209
         Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging limitations and future considerations, 209
         Summary, 209

        Advances in the Ablative Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 215

        By Beau B. Toskich, Ryan E. Bailey, Sadeer J. Alzubaidi, Zlatko Devcic, Gregory T. Frey, Andrew R. Lewis, Michael R. Moynagh, Kabir Mody, Charles A. Ritchie, Terence T. Sio, Tushar Patel, and Ricardo Paz-Fumagalli
         Introduction, 215
         Radiofrequency ablation, 216
         Microwave ablation, 216
         Cryoablation, 216
         Irreversible electroporation, 217
         Transarterial radioembolization, 217
         Stereotactic body radiotherapy, 218
         Ethanol therapy, 219
         Emerging therapies, 219
         Transarterial chemoembolization combination therapies, 220
         Ablative-systemic combination therapies, 221
         Ablation and immunotherapy, 221
         Future considerations, 222

        New Frontiers in Embolization, 227

        By Sandeep Bagla, Rachel Piechowiak, and Ari Isaacson
         Geniculate artery embolization, 227
         Prostate artery embolization, 229

        Vertebral Augmentation, 233

        By Nicole S. Carter, Julian Maingard, Ronil V. Chandra, Hamed Asadi, and Joshua A. Hirsch
         Introduction, 233
         Considerations in procedural technique, 234
        Indications, 234
        Contraindications, 234
        Preprocedural imaging, 234
        Image guidance, 234
        Special considerations, 234
         Evidence for efficacy, 235
        Vertebroplasty, 235
        Kyphoplasty, 237
        Comparing vertebroplasty with kyphoplasty, 238
         Evidence for safety, 238
        Overall complications, 238
        Cement leakage, 238
        Subsequent vertebral fractures, 239
        Mortality benefit?, 239
         Summary, 240

        Interventional Radiology in the Era of Immuno-Oncology: Impact and Opportunity, 243

        By Matthew A. Chiarello and Ryan M. Hickey
         Introduction, 243
         Backround, 244
        Immune system function and activation, 244
        Key checkpoints in the immune activation pathway, 244
        T-cell exhaustion and the tumor microenvironment, 244
        Role of the regulatory T cell, 245
         Immunosuppressive mechanisms in the liver, 245
        Liver-specific immune surveillance, 245
        Chronic liver inflammation and the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma, 245
         Immunotherapy and locoregional therapies, 245
        Thermal and chemical ablation, 246
        Transarterial therapies, 246
        Radioembolization and immunotherapy, 247
         Future perspectives, 248
         Summary, 248

        Endovascular Management of Acute Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Rationale for Use and Lessons Learned from Emerging Clinical Trials, 251

        By Kush R. Desai, Simer Grewal, Raj Shah, and Suresh Vedantham
         Introduction, 251
         Pathophysiology of postthrombotic syndrome, 252
         Assessment of postthrombotic syndrome, 252
         Rationale for thromboreductive therapies , 253
         Early supportive studies, 253
         Prospective evaluation of catheter-directed thrombolysis in postthrombotic syndrome prevention: the catheter-directed venous thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral vein thrombosis trial, 253
         Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and the acute venous thrombosis: thrombus removal with adjunctive catheter-directed thrombolysis trial, 254
         Future directions, 255